Ballman Whitepaper

What is the Ballman Project?

A unique collection of NFTs

The Ballman project is a collection of 6200 unique NFT tennis players created by Stanislas Wawrinka (three-time Grand Slam Winner, an Olympic champion and Davis Cup winner). Each NFT has its own characteristics: mindset, conditioning, tactics, technique, power, luck.

When it’s time for the big reveal, collectors/players will discover the characteristics given to their randomly assigned NFT.

Ballman cards

These player characteristics aren’t necessarily fixed: they may change over time depending on how they do in tournaments.

An innovative Virtual Tennis Game and Tournament uniting all NFTs from the metaverse

The NFT Open series is the main event offered by the Ballman Project, and the Ballmen give VIP access to it.

The NFT Open series aims to be the largest virtual tennis tournament circuit bringing together fans of NFTs and Tennis alike.

Several types of tournaments will be organized so you can help your player progress. The different tournament categories are below:

Daily trainings

Free entrance

Prize: XP Points

Your player can train every day to get better, stronger and have a better chance of winning tournaments.

The more you train, the more valuable your NFT will become.

Average match length: 15 minutes to watch live.
Weekly tournaments

Free entrance


One free tournament per week, open to anyone who owns a Ballman NFT, rewards the best players with NFT Open Series Points, goodies and boosters.

Finalists will automatically qualify for the NFT SUPER SERIES.

Average match length: 1 hour to watch live.
Super Series

Entrance fee: 0.005 ETH


Each month, there is a major tournament with prize money open to anyone who owns a Ballman NFT.

The best players are rewarded with ETH CASH, NFT Open Series Points, goodies and boosters.

Average match length: 1.5 hrs to watch live.
Final Four

Entrance fee: 0.015 ETH


Every three months, the top 2500 players can participate in the FINAL FOUR.

The best players are rewarded with ETH CASH, NFT Open Series Points, goodies and boosters.

Average match length: 1.5 hrs to watch live.

A ranking that takes into account the year’s results to date will be posted publicly online each week.

Those ranked in the top 100 at year’s end will win the right to participate in all Year 2 Super Series for free.

The top 10 will win the right to participate in all Year 2 Super Series and Final Fours for free.

Lots of surprises will be given out at the end of each month to reward the players of the month (highest ranked, Mover of the Month, etc.), including rackets signed by Stan, balls and goodies.

A play-to-earn game based on the world of tennis

Commitment, discipline, strategy, consistency... Just like the real world, the best virtual tennis players will dominate and convert their performance into steady income!

Will your Ballman take you to the top? It’s up to you to reveal them!

Ballmen: evolving NFTs

Visual characteristics and rarity

A Ballman is a combination of at least six visual characteristics (traits) of varying rarity and five tennis skills.

Visual characteristics:

  • pose
  • ball
  • place
  • clothing
  • accessories (watch, wristband, racket, etc.)
  • signature

Some premium Ballmen have an intrinsic rarity commemorating a particular match and are issued in only four variations: classic, bronze, silver and gold.

A total of 28 premium Ballmen will be released.

A special one-off Ballman, the match ball, will be the 5555th ball to be minted and will be auctioned off – with the proceeds going to charity.

Different visual traits have different rarities, ranging from common to rare (less than 5% occurrence) to legendary (less than 1%).

You’ll be able to check the Ballman site to learn just how rare each trait is and to evaluate the total rarity coefficient of the Ballman according to the rarity score best practice based on the sum of the inverses of each trait’s rarity.

A Ballman is also a virtual tennis player described through tennis characteristics represented by scores based on their class, which is explained in the next section.

Last but not least, some Ballman players have bonus undocumented alterations, or ‘easter eggs’, that will make them very rare without this being visible to the rarity tools. It will be the community’s job to notice these variations and to assign them a value!


Ballman Player Skills

A Ballman player has tennis skills that are described through six parameters that will influence their game:

  • Technique
  • Mindset
  • Power
  • Tactics
  • conditioning
  • Luck
Ballman cards

Ballmen are divided into five classes of players with different abilities:

  • Aggressive Baseliner
  • All-court Player
  • Serve-and-Volleyer
  • Pusher
  • Physique
  • Counterpuncher

Each Ballman class starts with a different distribution of abilities, but every class has a point total equal to 250 points plus 50 luck points.

Ballman players

Some Ballmen will inherit rare skills that will give them an advantage over their peers in the form of bonus points on certain abilities.

Player advantages Effect Rarity
Killer mindset Mindset +5 Rare
Cardio+ conditioning +5 Rare
Eagle eye Technique +5 Rare
Stan's punch Power +5 Rare
Quick neuron Tactics +5 Rare
Sledge Hammer Power +10 Epic
Master Mind Tactics +8 Epic
Zen master Mindset +10 Legendary
Low heartbeat mutation conditioning +10 Legendary
Racket samurai Technique +10 Legendary
Ballman player example


Each player starts with an energy level that decreases over the course of the match – this may happen at different rates depending on their conditioning and power.

Skills can change during the game. For example, mindset affects the ability to apply technique and tactics when energy is low.

With every new rally, each player’s points are re-evaluated to determine who scores.

Mindset points: (base points + player advantage)

Technique points: (base points + player advantage + surface bonus) * ((energy+mindset)/150)

Power points: (base points + player advantage) * ((2*energy+mindset)/250)

Tactics points: (base points + player advantage) * ((energy+2*mindset)/200)

Conditioning points: (base points + player advantage) * ((energy+mindset)/150)

Total points: Technique points + Power points + Tactics points + Conditioning points + Mindset points

Bonus action: bonuses are added based on the player’s class and the current action.

Serve points:

  • [if 1st serve] class bonus * ((2*energy+mindset)/250)
  • [if 2nd serve] class bonus * 0.5 * ((2*energy+mindset)/250)

Each rally has two major parts: the serve and the rally, the simulation parameters of which differ according to the players’ serve and class characteristics. At every step of the rally, the simulation determines how the situation evolves based on the following diagram.

In a match, some classes of players inherit advantages against other classes (triangle inequality) as follows:


The skills inherited when Minted are scalable and can be improved in a variety of ways:

  • training and matches
  • trophies and XP Points won during tournaments
  • accessories and boosters
boosters examples

Experience and equipment

XP points Multiplicator
Daily Training
Weekly tournaments
x2 (8th), x3 (quarter), x4 (semi), x5 (final)
Super Series
x2 (8th), x3 (quarter), x4 (semi), x5 (final)
x2 (8th), x3 (quarter), x4 (semi), x5 (final)

Level progression with XP points

Level progression with XP points

Bonus with Level

Bonus with level

Matches and statistics

Just like in the real world, there’s no such thing as a sure victory! A stronger player on paper can still suffer a defeat.

A match between two players is played in real time using traditional tennis rules over three winning sets.

Each rally is played using an algorithm that draws on the players’ abilities to determine where the ball lands. It works like this:

For each player and for each rally, the following calculations are made:

  • Energy update
  • Mindset update
  • Point total
  • Class advantage applied
  • Possible bonuses applied (booster, surface advantage)
  • Serve bonus applied (if applicable)
  • Possible penalty applied (loss of concentration, anger)

A total score for each player is obtained. This score determines who wins the rally and any notable event that will impact match statistics, like an Ace, a double fault, a break, etc.

So, with each rally, a score is obtained for each player and the winner of the rally is determined as follows: a threshold value is calculated for player1 and a random value is drawn by the simulator.

If this random value is lower than the player1 threshold, they win the point. If not, they lose it.

Here is how the threshold is calculated:

Player_Threshold1 = score_player1 / (score_player1 + score_player2)

This means a player with the highest score is not guaranteed to get the point, they only have a better chance. During the course of the match, better skills always tilt the match in favor of the player with the superior abilities, but winning is never a foregone conclusion.

In fact, if you look at the graph of results obtained from several hundred thousand simulated matches, you can see that a theoretical score difference of +25% for one player gives them a 90% probability of victory (blue graph). However, if a player with a 15% lower overall score has a serving advantage, it lowers the odds to 50-50 (yellow graph).

Likelihood of victory evaluated based on the strength advantage of one player over another

Rallies are simulated in real time and players can follow the progress of the match as it unfolds.

Detailed form showing the match which can be seen in real time as it plays out:

Match Ballman VS Stan is starting, service to Ballman
Game ended score: 40A-40 set score: 1-0
Game ended score: 40A-40 set score: 6-6
Game ended score: 15-40 set score: 6-7
Break point for Stan
Set is over, winner: Stan, score: 6-7
Game ended score: 30-40 set score: 0-0
Break point for Stan
Game ended score: 40-0 set score: 1-0
Game ended score: 40A-40 set score: 6-6
Game ended score: 40-40A set score: 6-7
Set is over, winner: Stan, score: 6-7
Match over, winner: Stan , final score: 6-1,4-6,5-7,6-7

Compact form available for consultation when the match is over:

Match over, winner: Stan , final score: 6-1,3-6,6-3,4-6,7-6

In the future, graphical representation systems showing the progress of a match will be offered to help you quickly understand how the match is going.

An overview of match statistics will be available and will initially show the following statistics:

  • Serve :
    • Aces
    • Double faults
    • 1st serves
    • Winning returns
  • Break points won
Live app

NFT Open series

Origin and progress

NFT license

You must have an NFT license to participate in official tournaments. Which is great because your Ballman is a perpetual license!

Ranking and qualification

Points and prizes:

Daily tournaments are a chance for you to earn experience points (see XP section) for your player, but you won’t earn NFT Open Series Points, Boosters or cash.

Play Weekly, Super Series and Final 4 tournaments to win more interesting rewards, as described below:

Weekly tournaments (roadmap 100%)
Rank NFT OS Points
Winner 1024
Finalist+ 512
1/2 F 256
1/4 F 128
1/8 F 64
1/16 F 32
1/32 F 16
1/64 F 8
1/128 F 4
1/256 F 2
1/512 F 1
Super Series (roadmap 100%)
Rank NFT OS Points ETH
Winner 2048 0.75
Finalist+ 1024 0.375
1/2 F 512 0.25
1/4 F 256 0.125
1/8 F 128 0.05
1/16 F 64
1/32 F 32
1/64 F 16
1/128 F 8
1/256 F 4
1/512 F 2
Final 4 (roadmap 100%)
Rank NFT OS Points ETH
Winner 4096 1.5
Finalist+ 2048 0.75
1/2 F 1024 0.5
1/4 F 512 0.25
1/8 F 256 0.125
1/16 F 128
1/32 F 64
1/64 F 32
1/128 F 16
1/256 F 8
1/512 F 4

As mentioned in the Roadmap, cash allocations are linked to the number of Minted NFTs. Guaranteed total minimum tournament prize pool of 20 ETH if the roadmap is 75% achieved and 50 ETH if it is 100% achieved.

Tournament schedule

Each tournament has its own set of features for admissions and entrance fees, but the organization of matches will be distributed using a common principle so they can be fully automated:

  • Direct playoffs (with BYE if needed)
  • Several Brackets of 64 players will be set up for easier visibility, as hundreds of participants will be registered.

Once players are registered, the number of brackets to be arranged is determined by randomly grouping sets of 64 players. All the winners from the first bracket will play each other in the final bracket in singles or doubles playoffs.

All brackets are ordered according to the NFT Ranking seed to ensure that the theoretical best compete in the end.

bracket bracket example

Calendar and prizes


The NFT OPEN SERIES will run each month according to a simple schedule available soon at


1st Monday of the month: NFT SUPER SERIES


The Final Fours will take place every three months (exact date to be confirmed).

Inclusion of partner NFTs – Interest in being a ballman to take advantage of revenue from outside the community

Being a Ballman is being part of the first virtual tennis community that created the NFT Open Series! It also means enjoying a permanent NFT Open Tennis license and its associated ranking, the NFT Open Series Points, and free participation in one tournament of each type in year one and a discount on the first three years!

The NFT Open Series will earn all its stripes with the inclusion of prestigious partner NFTs who will help fund tournament prize money.

Revenue from tournament entries will be used as follows:


Blockchain contracts

The Ballman smart contract, cornerstone of the Ballman project

The Ballman and its basic traits and properties are defined by an Ethereum ERC-721 smart contract. As such, its properties are immutable and it benefits from all the guarantees and features expected from a standard NFT, including the ability to be sold on a marketplace like Opensea.

Equipment and booster smart contracts

The equipment, experience-based scalable skills and consumables are managed on a smart contract linked to the Ballman. This means a Ballman can own equipment external to the main NFT, which upgrades their skills. This equipment can also be sold on a marketplace. To minimize the costs associated with transactions (gas fees), this Smart Contract is managed on the Polygon blockchain (compatible with Opensea).

Titles, rankings and trophies

Finally, NFT Open Series rankings, main match results and trophies won are also recorded on a specific Smart Contract that authenticates the performance of a Ballman or any other NFT. To minimize the costs associated with transactions (gas fees), this Smart Contract is managed on the Polygon blockchain (compatible with Opensea).

Progressive reveal

At each new stage of the roadmap, Ballman owners will be able to reveal their player. Those who purchase their player between two stages will have to wait until the next achievement stage before their Ballman is revealed.

The Roadmap also has several levels of unveiling. The first reveal will give the player’s class and basic characteristics, but not the rare abilities, which will be announced at the second reveal, achieved at 50% of the roadmap.

The Roadmap